For financing, the lending of securities or shares refers to the granting of securities by one party to another. Securities lending is important for short selling in which an investor borrows securities and sells them immediately. The borrower hopes to take advantage of this by selling the guarantee and later buying it back at a lower price. As the property has been temporarily transferred to the borrower, the borrower is required to pay dividends to the lender. In these transactions, the lender is compensated in the form of agreed fees and has also repaid the guarantee at the end of the transaction. This allows the lender to increase its returns by obtaining these fees. The borrower benefits from the opportunity to make a profit by reducing the securities. The first stock loan driver was the coverage of settlement errors. If a party fails to provide you with inventory, it may mean that you are not able to supply stocks that you have already sold to another party. In order to avoid the costs and penalties that may result from the failure of the transaction, the stock could be borrowed for payment and delivered to the second part. When your initial portfolio finally arrived (or was obtained from another source), the lender received the same number of shares to the secured loan.
In an example of a transaction, a large institutional money manager with a position on a given stock allows these securities to be borrowed through a financial intermediary, usually an investment bank, a premium broker or another broker acting on behalf of one or more clients. After the loan of the stock, the customer – the short seller – could sell it briefly. Their objective is to buy back the stock at a lower price and thus make a profit. By selling the borrowed shares, the short seller generates cash that becomes collateral paid to the lender. The current value of the security would be put on the market on a daily basis, allowing it to exceed the value of the loan by at least 2%. NB: 2% is the standard margin rate in the United States, while 5% are more common in Europe. Often, a bank acts as a lender, receives the cash and invests it until it has to be returned. Income from reinvested cash security is shared by paying a discount to the borrower and then distributing the balance between the securities lender and the agent bank. This allows large investment funds to earn additional income from their portfolios. If the lender is a pension plan, the transaction may be subject to various exceptions under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA).  Securities lending is the act of lending to an investor or investment firm.
The loan of securities is conditional on the borrower setting up guarantees, whether cash, guarantees or letters recommended. When a security is lent, the title and ownership are also transferred to the borrower. In investment banking, the term « loan of securities » is also used to describe a service offered to large investors that can allow the investment bank to lend its shares to other people. This often happens for investors of all sizes who have mortgaged their shares to borrow money to buy more shares, but large investors like pension funds often choose to do so to their non-mortgaged shares because they receive interest. In such agreements, the investor continues to receive dividends as usual, the only thing he can usually not do is choose his shares.