20. Fagiolo G, Squartini T, Garlaschelli D. Zero models of economic networks: the fall of global web trade. J Econ Int Coordinator. (2013) 8:75-107. doi: 10.1007/s11403-012-0104-7 Bilateral agreements may take some time. It took three years for the client cooperation agreement between the European Union and the European Union countries that adopted the euro as the national currency to form a geographical and economic region known as the euro area. The euro area is one of the largest economic regions in the world. Nineteen of the 28 European countries use the euro and New Zealand to become effective. With several factors likely to influence a bilateral agreement, there is no standard time for the duration of an agreement. The profile of the U.S. BTA is very different from that of China. BTA`s impact indices on U.S.
export ties with their partners highlight a possible focus on boosting their own exports during the negotiations. Although the importance of import links between contracting parties has also increased for the United States, a positive trend has been observed only for Australia, Central America and Jordan. However, this increase in the volume of trade is less important for U.S. partners than their market expansion vis-à-vis third countries. The fact that most U.S. partners reached significantly lower levels after the implementation of their respective BTAs shows that while the volume of bilateral trade is increasing, partner economies have become less dependent on the United States as trading partners. One possible reason for this observation would simply be to make other domestic markets more attractive to the trading partners concerned, who serve as alternative partners, for example. B, due to the general decline in labour costs in these third countries.
Since policy decisions are generally based on individual considerations, national policies can only create a general economic environment, but will hardly be able to fully meet the challenge of international economic competition. It is essential to take into account the increase in the (indirect) effects of trade flows in order to take into account the possible existence of high reciprocal dependence on production between sectors that are not direct suppliers or consumers, but are still members of the same supply chain. These addictions occur. B, for example, when two branches have the same trading partner, i.e. when the i and k industries are connected by a length 2 path. In particular, in a scenario where I buy products (entries) of k and sell goods to i, the node i could be affected by a shortage of k supply, which is transmitted further than j [34-36]. In order to further assess the impact of these higher-order dependencies, we are studying the role of the maximum length of the max path in defining IT.